# Respond to each of the following questions in a minimum of 175 words. Hypothesis

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Respond to each of the following questions in a minimum of 175 words.
Hypothesis testing is used in business to test assumptions and theories. These assumptions test against the evidence provided by actual, observed data. A statistical hypothesis is a statement about the value of a population parameter. Hypothesis testing is a process to decide between two (2) competing, mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive declarations about the parameter’s value. (Refer to LO 9-1).
A parameter can be the population mean, population proportion, population standard deviation, population variance. We will work primarily with the mean.
Scenario. An industrial seller of grass seeds packs product in 50-pound bags. A customer has recently filed a complaint alleging underweight bags. A production manager randomly sampled a batch and measures the following weights (use Week 4 Discussion Data in Resources below).
To determine whether the machinery is indeed underfilling the bags, the manager will conduct a one-sample t-test of means with a significance level α = 0.05. The population standard deviation (σ) is unknown. Use a one-tail test to show if the bags are underweight. (Refer to LO 9-7). Use the hypothesis testing steps in Example One-Sample t-Test of Means.
Save time: (a) Reuse and modify Example 1 One-Sample t-Test of Means; (b) Answer the questions in the Excel document.
A. Use a one-tail t-test means
Step 1: State the Hypotheses (Ho, H1)
Step 2: Specify the Decision Rule
Include, the significant level (alpha), with a 95% confidence level
Step 3: Calculate the Test Statistic and p-value
Step 4: Make the Decision
Step 5: Take Action
Are the bags underweight? Should they recalibrate the machinery?
B. The next two questions illustrate a different outcome when using a two-tail test.
B1. Calculate the two-tail t-test statistic and p-value.
B2. Compare the one-tail test p-value to a two-tail test p-value. Which test is most favorable to the production manager (less likely to prove underfilled bags)? Why?
References
Doane, D., Seward, L. (2019) Applied statistics in business and economics (6th ed). McGraw-Hill