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Below it lists five different research designs and accompanying design features. Please rank them from most rigorous (#1) to least rigorous (#5) using their corresponding letter. You are ranking them in terms of their ability to isolate the impact of the IV on the DV, establish “causality”, and rule out group and time threats—i.e., their ability to maximize internal validity. Once you have rank-ordered these designs, please provide some accompanying rationale for your decision (maybe within 3 sentences). You can include rationales, such as (a) reasons why it is weaker/stronger on the ranking, (b) what strengths the design DOES offer and (c) what weaknesses are exposed by using this design versus a stronger design.
(a) True experimental design where parolees are randomly assigned to varying levels of program intensity and assessed for change in anger and emotion dysregulation.
(b) Prisoners participating in a work release program were assessed prior to and after the program for their criminogenic attitudes and institutional misconduct
(c) Longitudinal study of undergraduates to examine the association of workload on stress.
(d) Quasi-experimental study matching groups on demographic characteristics a priori and use of propensity score matching to account for other observed differences in groups from data collected at baseline
(e) Cross-sectional study of student workload and stress using a survey administered to all undergraduates at ASU
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